SOC 100 Midterm Exam 1 Study Guide

11 May 2016


Question 1

_____ is considered the first female sociologist and argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.

  • Auguste Comte
  • Émile Durkheim
  • Karl Marx
  • Harriet Martineau


Question 2

The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:

  • Structure
  • Agency
  • Free choice
  • Individualism


Question 3

Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:

  •  Structure
  •  Institutions
  •  Free will
  •  Socialization


Question 4

Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:

  •  Norms
  • Culture
  •  Social status
  •  Values


Question 5

The relationship between agency and structure is _____, as ______.

  •  one-sided, agency influences structure
  •  one-sided, structure enables or constrains agency
  •  reciprocal, they both have an effect on one another
  •  nonexistent, there is no relationship between the two

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Question 6

_____ established the first rules for conducting sociological research and examined the impact of modern society on social solidarity.

  •  Auguste Comte
  •  Émile Durkheim
  •  Karl Marx
  •  Harriet Martineau


Question 7

_____ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.

  •  Auguste Comte
  •  Émile Durkheim
  •  Karl Marx
  •  Harriet Martineau


Question 8

The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:

  •  Culture
  •  Social solidarity
  •  Norms
  •  Societal unity


Question 9

The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:

  •  Critical thinking
  •  Sociological imagination
  •  Scientific reasoning
  •  Logical thought


Question 10

The process of gathering empirical (scientific and specific) data, creating theories, and rigorously testing theories is known as:

  •  Sociological method
  •  Scientific method
  •  Data collection
  •  Theoretical reasoning

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Question 11

_____reasoning starts from specific data and tries to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.

  •  Logical
  •  Inductive
  •  Ground-level
  •  Deductive


Question 12

A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:

  •  Negative causation
  •  Negative correlation
  •  Positive correlation
  •  Decreasing relationship


Question 13

The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:

  •  Verification
  •  Replication
  •  Validation
  •  Reliability


Question 14

A _____ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.

  •  Correlated
  •  Causal
  •  Positive
  •  Statistical


Question 15

The idea that concepts and measurement accurately represent what they claim to represent is referred to as:

  •  Replication
  •  Validity
  •  Reliability
  • Falsifiability

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Question 16

In sociological research, ideas about the world that describe a possible relationship between social phenomena are referred to as:

  •  Theories
  •  Correlations
  •  Hypotheses
  •  Causations


Question 17

_____ reasoning starts from broad theories but proceeds to break them down into more specific and testable hypotheses.

  •  Deductive
  •  Hypothesis
  •  Inductive
  •  Grand theory


Question 18

Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:

  •  Religion
  •  Cultural norms
  •  Values
  •  Beliefs


Question 19

Commitment to respecting cultural differences rather than submerging them into a larger, dominant culture is referred to as:

  •  Multiculturalism
  •  Cultural relativism
  •  Ethnocentrism
  •  Tolerance


Question 20

The worldview whereby we understand the practices of another society sociologically, in terms of that society’s own norms and values and not our own, is referred to as:

  •  Ethnocentrism
  •  Pluralism
  •  Multiculturalism
  •  Cultural relativism

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Question 21

Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:

  •  Laws
  •  Public opinions
  •  Religious beliefs
  •  Values


Question 22

Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:

  •  Images
  •  Symbols
  •  Trademarks
  •  Ethnographies


Question 23

The desire of imperialistic nations to see their power, influence, and profits grow throughout the world is known as:

  •  Colonization
  •  Grobalization
  •  Glocalization
  •  Imperialism


Question 24

A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:

  •  Ethnicity
  •  Subculture
  •  Counterculture
  •  Subgroup


Question 25

The abstract creations of human cultures, including ideas about behavior and living, are referred to as:

  •  Philosophy
  •  Nonmaterial culture
  •  Material culture
  •  Theory


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SOC 100 Midterm Exam Part 1 - Assignment


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